Theoretical and Empirical Critique


The 1965 UN International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of All Racial Discrimination defines racial discrimination as any contras, dissociation, confines, restriction or bias founded on ethnicity, race, heredity, or national origin that has the intention or result of abolishing or hinder the acknowledgement, or action, on equality, or civil rights and basic freedoms in the governmental, fiscal, educational or any other aspect of public life.


Apart from the above-mentioned causes of color lines, there could be other underlying factors such as psychological causes that led to the wide spreading of racism, social discrimination and related intolerance.

Marx did not exhaustively explore all the possible causes of the emergence of color lines such as personal prejudice of the citizens. On the ground, the natives were hostile to other races, fueling racial intolerance. The natives considered themselves superior compared to the immigrants. The natives form views, philosophies, beliefs, social actions and systems that oppress the presumed weaker race. These actions result in antagonism between these races.

Marx also left out critical features originating from the natives such as jingoism, cynicism, pessimism, negative attitudes, prejudice and discrimination which the UN International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of All Racial Discrimination considers an integral part of humanity. Natives were against the influx of immigrants. They wanted immigrants chased away and voted against the same.

Furthermore, Marx did not expound the subject of stereotyping.

Today in America, the whites associate black Americans with crime. Black Americans were discriminated against in school. They were only taught vocational skills such as carpentry and plumbing due to the stereotype that they could not easily grasp subjects such as law and engineering. They were only taught basic literacy and arithmetic skills (addition, multiplication). They had a view that only the whites could do calculus. They had a flawed perception of our learning abilities in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM).

Stereotype in housing policy. Houses for blacks were single whereas the whites lived in mansionette. Schools were zoned according to racial lines. Schools for Africans did not have laboratories for experiments. Instead they had workshops where they learnt subjects such as woodwork.

In South Africa, after independence, F.W. de Klerk became President nelson Mandela’s deputy. the British

Stereotype in security.


Malcom X states that the media is the most potent body on earth with the capacity to portray the innocent as guilty, and vice versa since they have influence over the minds of public. (Kulaszewicz,4). The media can be used to sow hatred and in despicable brutality.

Marx left out the role of the media in advancing racism in the making of a state. It is evident that the media plays an integral role in informing postmodernism ideas and perceptions amongst its consumers both in print and electronic media. The mass media influences our views on the concept of beauty.

The media portrayed black students as rowdy and violent. For example, white students smashed car windows, lit fires and destroyed college property, after winning a basketball game tournament with their colleagues, yet it was described as a “celebration”.   

During the onset of media and film, the whites decided which images about blacks could be broadcasted, giving a single sided view of the black people. It was difficult for African Americans to express their real identities, opinions and stories. Blacks were not named in picture captions, suggesting that they were dangerous and insignificant. This exemplified the stereotype that they were not important since they did not belong to the white race (Kulaszewicz,18). The media failed to promote neutrality in their content. They continuously perpetuated the White’s racist agendas by associating African Americans with all manner of social problems such as crime, urban decay and being the majority in welfare groups. 


Micro-aggressions can be defined as short and everyday spoken and environmental dishonor, whether intended or not, that convey antagonistic insults to specific groups of people (Kulaszewicz,15). The perpetrators of microaggression are unaware of the behavior they show people from other races. Black activists only advocated for the interests of their community. White leaders were perceived to represent their community. Racial micro-aggression was one of the numerous forms inequalities that people from smaller races experienced everyday in a society dominated by the whites.


Marx does not state whether racism is intentional or unintentional, whether it is learned or perpetuated. What is its difference with racial prejudice?


Blacks are associated with crime.

. Marx doesn’t morally condemn social inequality.

The defines racial discrimination as






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